In 1824, Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton announced that the Indians “must know that . . . the power of the state is against them; and that, sooner or later, they must go.” In response, Native Ohioans sought to remain in their homeland by adopting cash-crop agriculture, converting to Christianity, and accepting other, dramatic changes in their cultures. That they were removed from their homelands in spite of their efforts shocked many Americans, then and now. In this lecture, Warren described this history and discussed how, in recent decades, indigenous peoples have attempted to reconnect with their Ohio homelands and explore some of the ongoing challenges to those efforts. Stephen Warren is Associate Professor of History at the University of Iowa and author of The Worlds the Shawnee Made: Migration and Violence in Early America.

The presentation was held at The Toledo Museum of Art